Essays on the Color Line and the One-Drop Rule
by Frank W Sweet
November 28, 2008
he one-drop rule is the U.S. tradition that someone of utterly European appearance who rejects an African-American self-identity is “really Black,” like it or not, due to having “one drop” of known African ancestry, no matter how ancient. The notion labels such people as merely “passing for White.” Recent examples are New York Times critic Anatole Broyard (a real person) and Anthony Hopkins’s character in the film “The Human Stain” (a fictional character). Such people are involuntarily classified as members of the U.S. Black endogamous group by press and public despite their European appearance and their freely chosen non-Black self-identity.
Manifestation of Conflict Between Two Myths
The one-drop rule is a manifestation of the conflict between the U.S. myth that “race” is determined by appearance (skin tone, hair texture, facial features) and the contradictory but equally strongly held myth that “race” is determined by ancestry. (“Myth” in this context simply denotes a mandatory belief taught to young Americans in order to exemplify social standards that they will be expected to follow in adulthood.) On the one hand, most Americans agree that someone who looks Black is Black, even if neither of their parents self-identified as African Americans (President Obama, for instance). But most Americans also agree that someone born into the African-American community who looks completely White is also Black in some intangible sense. The latter folkloric belief exemplifies the one-drop rule.
Unique to the United States
It is hard for residents of other countries to grasp that the notion of invisible Blackness is widely accepted, and often legally enforced, in the United States today. To most people around the world, the claim that someone “looks White but is really Black” is as nonsensical as saying that someone “looks tall but is really short, just passing as tall” or “looks fat but is really thin, just passing as fat.” In every other nation on earth, if you look White and consider yourself White, then you are White.
Unique to the Black/White U.S. Dichotomy
An American may legally claim to be 1/4 Cherokee, 1/4 Irish, or 1/4 Russian and still choose some other ethnic self-identity (German, say). But an American who admits to being 1/4 Black is not given such a choice. Unlike every other U.S. ethnicity, you cannot legally choose to be partly African-American. The one-drop rule is enforced at the highest levels of the U.S. federal government. If you check off more than one “race” box in the U.S. census and one of the boxes was “Black” then you are classified as solely Black, no matter how many other boxes you checked. (See for example New Life for the “One Drop” Rule or New Policy on Census Says Those Listed as White and Minority Will Be Counted as Minority.)
Historically Had Nothing to do With Slavery
Like most U.S. myths regarding that nation’s unique endogamous color line, folkloric tradition says that it has something to do with slavery. Specifically, popular culture as well as U.S. academia, liberals as well as conservatives, teach Americans to blame long-dead slavery for their currently enforced polity. (This resembles the way that Americans blame slavery for their racialism and their endogamous color line, although slavery was ubiquitous while the latter phenomena remain unique to the United States.)
The actual legal connection between slavery and physical appearance was precisely the reverse. A person of any visible European ancestry was presumed to be free. The court cases Gobu v. Gobu (1802 NC), Hudgins v. Wrights (1806 VA), and Adelle v. Beauregard (1810 LA) established the U.S. caselaw that if you had any discernible European ancestry you were presumed free, and the burden was on the alleged slave owner to prove that you were legally a slave through matrilineal descent. This law was then followed in hundreds of court cases without exception until U.S. slavery was ended by the 13th Amendment.
Even a cursory examination of the historical court case records shows that the notion of invisible Blackness first appeared in the free states of the Ohio valley in the 1830s, was not accepted in the south until long after the Civil war, first became statutory in 1910, and did not spread nationwide until the 1920s.
Historically Enforced More by Blacks Than by Whites
Except for one 50-year period of U.S. history, the one-drop rule has been believed more strongly and enforced more harshly by African-American political leaders than by White Americans.
The exceptional period was the Jim Crow era of state-sponsored terrorism against its African-American citizens. During the Jim Crow period, which ended around 1965, the one-drop rule kept compassionate White families in line by legally exiling to Blackness any who defended Blacks against the terror. During this period, the one-drop rule was never legally applied in court to any family who self-identified as Black. It was used only against Whites.
In all other periods, from the 1830s to today, the one-drop rule was and remains an instrument of intra-ethnic coercion by African American political leaders against those born into the African American community who wish to self-identify as something other than “Black” in adulthood.
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Frank W. Sweet is the author of Legal History of the Color Line (ISBN 9780939479238), an analysis of the nearly 300 appealed cases that determined Americans’ “racial” identity over the centuries. It is the most thorough study of the legal history of this topic yet published. He was accepted to Ph.D. candidacy in history with a minor in molecular anthropology at the University of Florida in 2003 and has completed all but his dissertation defense. He earned an M.A. in History from American Military University in 2001. He is also the author of several state park historical booklets and published historical essays. He was a member of the editorial board of the magazine Interracial Voice, and is a regular lecturer and panelist at historical and genealogical conferences. To send email, click here.
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